Final transit of the cycle finishing on 20th May 1641 BC
There are numerous calculations in relation to the birth of Moses and the dates for the Exodus. Bishop Ussher who published his calculations in 1650 is increasingly inaccurate the further back he goes. Ussher's date for Moses' birth is 1571 BC. There is a historical document known as Eusebius' Chronicle which was written in about 325 A.D. It contained Chronological Tables from the earliest times down to the reign of the emperor Constantine. Ussher appears to have rejected the conclusions of Eusebius.
Eusebius of Caesarea, c. 263–339 AD, called Eusebius Pamphili, became the Bishop of Caesarea (Maritima) in Palestine about the year 314 AD. Eusebius, historian, expert in the Scriptures and a respected debater of contentious issues is one of the more renowned Church Fathers. According to this revered expert, the date of Moses' birth as reiterated in the translation by Jerome was in 1592 BC. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronicon_(Jerome) The actual likely date falls about the time of the calculations of Eusebius which is very close to my calculation of 1592-1 BC. My reasoning is as follows:
The first Jubilee was celebrated fifty years after the entry of the Israelites into Canaan. It has been possible to calculate very closely the dates of certain jubilee years from which we can extrapolate. See http://www.creation-answers.com/chronoj.htm
According to the calculations on the above mentioned site, these years were 122-1 BC, 172-1 BC, 222-1 BC, 272-1 BC, 322-1 BC etc. All these dates are plus or minus one year. Going back, there is a date that fits neatly into the time-line for the end of the exodus. 1472 BC is a perfect fit for the entry into the Promised Land. The first Jubilee was therefore around 1422 BC, the first one being 50 years after the entry into Canaan. As Moses was 120 years old at that time of the entry into Canaan, his year of birth is therefore 1592-1 BC.
If these dates are indeed correct, we can calculate the year that the Exodus began. According to Exodus 7:7 Moses was eighty years old when he spoke to Pharaoh. From his estimated birth in 1592-1 BC, eighty years brings us to 1512-1 BC. This date coincides with a transit of Venus on 18 November 1512 BC. It seems fitting that this event should be marked on God's calendar for special acknowledgement in this way.
Malkie Janowski for Chabad.org - “Moses died on the 7th of Adar. The Talmud proves this as follows:
In Deuteronomy 34:8 we read that the Jews mourned for thirty days following Moses' death in the Plains of Moab. This area borders Israel, just east of the Jordan River. The book of Joshua begins with God's command to bring the Jewish people across the Jordan River. God specifies that they are to cross in three days time. This instruction was given immediately after Moses died, meaning at the earliest possible opportunity after his death. This would have been following the thirty days of mourning.
In Joshua 4:19 we are told that the Jews crossed the river on the tenth of Nissan. If we subtract the three days between the command and actual crossing, plus the thirty days of mourning, we find the date of Moses' passing is the seventh of Adar. Incidentally, the seventh of Adar is also Moses' birthday. This we derive from what Moses said on the day of his death (Deuteronomy 31:2): "Today I am one hundred and twenty years old."” In the Hebrew year 2279, the seventh of Adar (Moses death) equates to the 20th of February, 1471 BC in the Gregorian Calendar. The tenth day of Nisan (entry into Canaan) in that year equates to March 24th.
The building of Solomon's Temple
I have calculated the 480 years mentioned in 1 Kings 6:1 as being from the last year of the Exodus, making the beginning of the construction of Solomon's Temple as being in the month of Ziv (modern name Iyyar) in 992-1 BC. That is about April/May. The material that Eusebius relied upon for Moses birth were the historical records then available that cross-referenced the reigns and time-frames of Kings from surrounding countries.
There are two differing accounts of 1 Kings 6:1. The authorised version which is based upon the Masoretic texts specifies a period of 480 years “And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.” However, the Septuagint specifies 440 years. In this instance, the figure in the Septuagint appears to be either an error in transcription or translation from the Hebrew into Greek. The construction of the Temple of Solomon took 7 ½ years (1 Kings 6:37,38).
If the calculation of the 480 years is taken from the entry into Canaan until the beginning of Solomon's Temple, there would be another 406 years until 586 BC which is the date of the destruction of Solomon's Temple. From the beginning of the Temple until Solomon's death is another 36 years. The time-frame for the Divided Kingdom according to my time-line is 370 years. The scriptures in the Books of Chronicles and Kings specify a maximum of 396 years. It is clear that just like the period of the judges, there were over-lapping reigns.
Errors in calculating the period of the Divided Kingdom
Whatever search engine in used to search out information on the reigns during the Divided Kingdom invariably leads to commentators who rely on the work of Edwin R. Thiele, a respected Bible expert, archaeologist and language expert who wrote what is described as the definitive work on the correlation of the reigns between the Israelite and Judean kings. He puts the start date at 931 BC, a figure which is quoted by virtually every source. However, as well argued and as well-intentioned his efforts, he did get it wrong. I believe that the correct date is 956 BC and following is my reasoning.
God has put into place various cycles. Not only do we have the cycle of transits, but we also have the Jubilee years that the Jews celebrated every 50 years. Those years always ended in '22' or '72' BC. Prior to the death of Solomon which resulted in The Divided Kingdom, we know that there were 36 years since Solomon began to build the Temple -(1 Kings 6: 37,38). Prior to that there were 480 years since the entry into Canaan -(1 Kings 6:1). The Jews celebrated their first Passover 50 years after that event. (36 + 480– 50) years gives us 466 years. If Thiele's figure of 931 BC is correct, then another 466 years should take us to a Jubilee year. The calculation takes us back to 1397 BC which falls exactly half-way between the Jubilee years of 1422 BC and 1372BC, an error of 25 years.
According to Thiele's calculations, the length of time during the dived Kingdom was 345 years rather than 396. During his process, he has attributed co-regencies to a great number of the kings in the list. In summary, the information that nearly every commentator has relied upon for nearly 70 years is almost certainly incorrect.
The Chronology of the Divided Kingdom
To this point, I've calculated the reigns of the Hebrew Kings from the death of Solomon up until the exile to Babylon as being 370 years. Following is my method for calculating the various dates. Firstly, we need to identify an event in history where the date is beyond argument. The one I chose was the captivity of Samaria by Sargon II of Assyria in 722 BC. We know from 2 Kings 18:10 that Samaria was led into captivity in the sixth year of the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah. By inserting the lengths of reigns of the kings following into the chronology, we find that it's a near perfect fit.
There are two co-regencies that relate to Amaziah and his son Uzziah and another between Jotham and his son Ahaz. Many attempts have been made to reconcile the reigns of the kings. Mine still poses a question or two. For the mathematics to work, the co-regency between Amaziah and his son Uzziah would have begun when Uzziah was only four years old. It seems very unusual, but Amaziah did some very unusual things, to the point that there was a palace revolt and he fled. He was chased down and killed, being replaced by Uzziah at the age of sixteen.
The co-regency involving Jotham and his son Ahaz is the only explanation for the apparently conflicting scriptures of 2 Kings 15:30 and 2 Kings 17:1. The first states the Hoshea began to reign in Israel in the twentieth year of Jotham. The confusion here is that Jotham only ruled for 16 years (2 Kings 15:33). The explanation is that Jotham was so well-regarded in his day that some dates were counted from the beginning of his reign, even after he died. The second scripture states that Hoshea started to reign in the twefth year of Ahaz's reign. What we can get from this is that Jotham died and that he finished his reign during the eighth year of Ahaz's reign. I assert that they were co-regents for eight years.
The correlation of the time-line to archaeological evidence
1 Kings 14:25 "And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem;" My date for the beginning of King Rehoboam's reign being 956 BC means that the fifth year of his reign would be 951 BC. Shishak is assumed by most Egptologists to beShoshenq I, the first King of the 22nd Dynasty whose reign was no earlier than 945 BC to no later than 924 BC. According to my figures, the 951 BC date would coincide with the reign of the Egyptian King Psusennes II whose rule started about 967 BC.
This might seem to be fatal to my argument if it wasn't for the fact that Shoshenq and Psusennes were closely engaged in many family and military pursuits. Prior to his reign, Shoshenq I had been the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army, and chief advisor to his predecessor Psusennes II, as well as the father-in-law of Psusennes' daughter Maatkare.
The campaign of 951 BC had Shoshenq as the Commander-in-Chief. As king, he later attacked Palestine in about 925-23 BC, about a year before his death. The fact that he was identified as king at the earlier date is simply the scribes' way of positively identifying this character. Very little is known of Psusennes' reign as there is a lack of much in the way of historical records relating to him. Therefore, there is no known Egyptian record of this historical event.
Shosenq I on the other hand records in great detail his victories in the Palestine campaign. Ironically, there is no record in the Hebrew chronicles of this later attack, probably because it was overshadowed by a stunning victory by King Asa of Judah over Zerah and the 1 million Ethiopians in 922 BC. (2 Chr. 14:9-15). This also fits the time-line. We know that this battle occurred before the 15th year of Asa's reign (2 Chr 15:10). As his reign started in 936 BC, fifteen years takes us to 921 BC.
Coincidences and Symmetries
During the time of the kings of the Divided Kingdom, there were three examples of major events corresponding to the years of Jubilee. 872 BC was the year that Jehoram of Judah began to reign. Of greater importance is that fact that Samaria was taken into captivity in 722 BC. The Jubilee is meant to signify liberty, but the kings of Israel, all of whom were evil to a greater or lesser degree, reaped the harvest of their rebellion towards God.
In contrast, Asa called upon God in the year of Jubilee, also known as the year of God's favour and the acceptable year of the Lord. His army was outnumbered by the 1 million soldiers of Ethiopians who had come to take over the whole land. God heard Asa's prayer and delivered Judah. The defeat of the Ethiopians ensured that their masters in Egypt kept their peace with Israel and Samaria for the next 300 years.
The two major cycles, being the transits of Venus and the Jubilee years appear to have inter-relationships at times. There is a mathematical symmetry from the birth of Abraham until the crucifixion of Christ. For example:
·Moses was born 50 years after a transit and the first Jubilee was 50 years after his death;
·Jesus was born 50 years after a transit, and Pentecost was 50 days after His crucifixion;
·King David reigned for 40 years, and the reigns before and after him were 40 years;
·Abraham entered into covenant at age 99. God made a promise to him 24 years earlier, and confirmed the covenant 24 years later;
·Prior to the reign of Saul, the period of the Judges was 370 years. After the reign of Solomon, the period of the Divided Kingdom was 370 years;
·Prior to the beginning of the period of the Judges in 1445 BC, there were 619 years back to the birth of Abraham. After the reign of the kings which finished in 586 BC, there were 619 years until the end of Daniel's 70 weeks in 70 AD. The midst of the 70th week when the Messiah was to be cut off (Daniel 9:25, 26) is Passover in 31 AD. Nisan 14 in that year was a Wednesday, giving Jesus 3 full days in the grave, being resurrected on Saturday and appearing to the Disciples on Sunday.
·After Christ's crucifixion, there is a 36 year gap in the time-line up until the final 3 ½ years of the 70 weeks which culminates in the destruction of Jerusalem.
An interesting point to note is the 1,029 year totals of the periods on either side of King David's reign. It seems like a strange number until you consider the factors which are 3 x 7 x 7 x 7. Seven is the number of spiritual perfection and three is the number of completeness. During the first period of 1,029 years, we had the covenant between God and Abraham, then later the Law that was given to Moses. These were shadows of what was to come. At the end of the second cycle, Christ fulfilled the reality of God's final covenant with mankind, becoming a willing sacrifice so that all who identified themselves with that sacrifice could become sons of God.
To demonstrate, following is a chart showing most of these relationships. As previously stated, I have used dates derived from the Septuagint, a source that be be proven to have been quoted at times by Jesus. If we use the Masoretic text, there is no pattern. Judge for yourself.
Explaining the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1
During the research to establish the dates in the chart showing the symmetries, there was one period in particular that was troubling. That is the 480 years that are mentioned in 1 Kings 6:1 that spells out the period from the Israelites coming out of Egypt until the fourth year of Solomon's reign was 480 years. One or two commentators have suggested that the 480 years started at the end of the Exodus. This conveniently fits my time-line, but it's still a concern. That is, until I considered how God counts time.
We know that there is a gap period between the crucifixion of Christ and the period of 3 ½ years leading up the the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The period of 36 years is excluded from the count. Could it be that 40 years has been excluded from the count of 480 years? If so, why?
A possible clue might lie in what those two excluded terms might have in common. For the period between 31 AD and 67 AD, the Jews who continued in their religion had rejected the provision of God's only Son as the Messiah. This was the ultimate expression of rebellion against the Word of God, Jesus being the embodiment of the Word. - John 1
As for the 40 years between 1512 BC and 1472 BC, this is the period of wandering in the wilderness subsequent to the Exodus and just prior to the entry into Canaan. God's intention was for the Israelites to enter the Promised Land immediately. However, ten of the twelve spies who were sent into Canaan brought back a bad report.
Even after the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea and having seen the ten plagues that they'd seen inflicted upon the Egyptians, the Israelites were still too entrenched in their slave mentality to rely on Yahweh who had demonstrated his intentions towards them. It was therefore necessary to keep them in the wilderness for 40 years so that the disbelieving generation would die off. When the Israelites departed Egypt, God count that as Year Zero in the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1. When they crossed the Jordan, God counted that as Year One. The two events are parallel.
As per the Symmetry Chart, these quarantined periods both fall towards the end of 619 year cycles. This no no accident.